Generation M2: Media in the Lives of 8- to 18-Year-Olds is the third in a series of large-scale, nationally representative surveys by the Kaiser Family Foundation (KFF) about young people's media use.
It includes data from all three waves of the study (1999, 2004, and 2009), and is among the largest and most comprehensive publicly available sources of information about media use among American youth.
“The amount of time young people spend with media has grown to where it’s even more than a full-time work week,” said Drew Altman, Ph.D., President and CEO of the Kaiser Family Foundation. “When children are spending this much time doing anything, we need to understand how it’s affecting them – for good and bad.”
The Kaiser Family Foundation found that with technology allowing nearly 24-hour media access as children and teens go about their daily lives, the amount of time young people spend with entertainment media has risen dramatically, especially among minority youth.
Mobile media driving increased consumption.
- The increase in media use is driven in large part by ready access to mobile devices like cell phones and iPods.
- Over the past five years, there has been a huge increase in ownership among 8- to 18-year-olds: from 39% to 66% for cell phones, and from 18% to 76% for iPods and other MP3 players.
- During this period, cell phones and iPods have become true multi-media devices: in fact, young people now spend more time listening to music, playing games, and watching TV on their cell phones (a total of :49 daily) than they spend talking on them (:33).
Parents and media rules.
- Only about three in ten young people say they have rules about how much time they can spend watching TV (28%) or playing video games (30%), and 36% say the same about using the computer.
- But when parents do set limits, children spend less time with media: those with any media rules consume nearly 3 hours less media per day (2:52) than those with no rules.
- While the study cannot establish a cause and effect relationship between media use and grades, there are differences between heavy and light media users in this regard.
- About half (47%) of heavy media users say they
usually get fair or poor grades (mostly Cs or lower), compared to about a
quarter (23%) of light users. These
differences may or may not be influenced by their media use patterns.
- Heavy users are the 21% of young people who consume more than 16 hours of media a day, and light users are the 17% of young people who consume less than 3 hours of media a day.
Black and Hispanic children spend far more time with media than White
are substantial differences in children’s media use between members of various ethnic
and racial groups. Black and Hispanic
children consume nearly 4½ hours more media daily (13:00 of total media
exposure for Hispanics, 12:59 for Blacks, and 8:36 for Whites).
- Some of the largest differences are in TV
viewing: Black children spend nearly 6 hours and Hispanics just under 5½ hours,
compared to roughly 3½ hours a day for White youth. The only medium where there is no significant
difference between these three groups is print.
- Differences by race/ethnicity remain even
after controlling for other factors such as age, parents’ education, and single
vs. two-parent homes.
- The racial disparity in media use has grown substantially over the past five years: for example, the gap between White and Black youth was just over two hours (2:12) in 2004, and has grown to more than four hours today (4:23).
Big changes in TV.
- For the first
time over the course of the study, the amount of time spent watching
regularly-scheduled TV declined, by 25 minutes a day (from 2004 to 2009).
- The many new ways to watch TV–on the
Internet, cell phones, and iPods–actually led to an increase in total TV
consumption from 3:51 to 4:29 per day, including :24 of online viewing, :16 on
iPods and other MP3 players, and :15 on cell phones.
- All told, 59% (2:39) of young people’s TV-viewing consists of live TV on a TV set, and 41% (1:50) is time-shifted, DVDs, online, or mobile.
- TV remains the dominant type of media content consumed, at 4:29 a day, followed by music/audio at 2:31, computers at 1:29, video games at 1:13, print at :38, and movies at :25 a day.
- About two-thirds (64%) of young people say the TV is usually on during meals, and just under half (45%) say the TV is left on “most of the time” in their home, even if no one is watching.
- Seven in ten (71%) have a TV in their bedroom, and half (50%) have a console video game player in their room. Again, children in these TV-centric homes spend far more time watching: 1:30 more a day in homes where the TV is left on most of the time, and an hour more among those with a TV in their room.
Popular new activities like social networking also contribute to
increased media use.
- Top online activities include social networking (:22 a day), playing games (:17), and visiting video sites such as YouTube (:15).
- Three-quarters (74%) of all 7th-12th graders say they have a profile on a social networking site.
- High levels of media multitasking also contribute to the large amount of media young people consume each day.
- About 4 in 10 7th-12th graders say they use another medium “most” of the time they’re listening to music (43%), using a computer (40%), or watching TV (39%).
- Time spent with every medium other than movies and print increased over the past five years: :47 a day increase for music/audio, :38 for TV content, :27 for computers, and :24 for video games.